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We investigate how ice and snow particles are generated in clouds because they are the origin of almost all precipitation falling to the surface. We use multiple meteorological radars to evaluate and improve the ability of numerical models to better simulate the ice part of clouds.

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Selected Publications:

  • Dias Neto, J., Kneifel, S., Ori, D., Trömel, S., Handwerker, J., Bohn, B., Hermes, N., Mühlbauer, K., Lenefer, M., and Simmer, C, 2019: The TRIple-frequency and Polarimetric radar Experiment for improving process observations of winter precipitation, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 845-863, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-11-845-2019
  • Ori, D., and S. Kneifel, 2018: Assessing the uncertainties of the Discrete Dipole Approximation in case of melting ice particles, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 217, 396-406, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2018.06.017. Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407318302942
  • Leinonen, J., S. Kneifel, and R. J. Hogan, 2018: Evaluation of the Rayleigh–Gans approximation for microwave scattering by rimed snowflakes, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 144, 77-88, doi:10.1002/qj.3093. Link: https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/qj.3093
  • Kneifel S., P. Kollias, A. Battaglia, J. Leinonen, M. Maahn, H. Kalesse, and F. Tridon, 2016: First Observations of Triple Frequency Radar Doppler Spectra in Snowfall, 2016: Interpretation and Applications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 2225–2233, doi: 10.1002/2015GL067618. Link: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2015GL067618
  • Kneifel S., A. von Lerber, J. Tiira, D. Moisseev, P. Kollias, and J. Leinonen, 2015: Observed Relations between Snowfall Microphysics and Triple-frequency Radar Measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 6034-6055, doi: 10.1002/2015JD023156. Link: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2015JD023156


  • Video on How does a cloud form on YouTube: